No 2 - September 2002
General Coordination: José Esteban Castro
In this issue
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organized a session on "Recent changes in Latin American water and sanitation policies", at
the Third European Congress of Scholars working on Latin America
"Crossing Borders in Latin America", that took place in Amsterdam from 3-6 de July 2002. The
session was held in Spanish, one of the official languages of the event, and had six papers:
- José Esteban Castro offered the coordinator's overview of PRINWASS, placing the emphasis on the research objetives and the outputs expected.
- Carmen Ledo from the San Simón University Team presented a paper on "Water in Cochabamba as a component of inequity, poverty, vulnerability and social exclusion", which was based on her recent PhD Thesis at Delft University of Technology.
- Emilio Crenzel from the National University of Buenos Aires Team spoke about "The social character of water supply and sanitation and the evolution of the service in Argentina during the 1990s".
- Jessica Budds, a doctoral student at the School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford University, talked about "The development of water rights markets in Chile", based on her ongoing thesis research.
- María Luisa Torregrossa, from the FLACSO Mexico Team was unable to travel to Amsterdam but sent her paper on "Social forms for the management, access, administration, and distribution of water in the Mexican Pacific Basin. A case study of five cities".
- Fernando Saavedra Peláez, from the FLACSO Mexico Team was unable to travel to Amsterdam but sent his paper on "La población y el agua en México".
The session benefited from a lively audience composed of academics, students, NGO representatives,
and practitioners. Not only was this a wonderful opportunity for the dissemination of the
project's activities, but it also allowed the development of new partnerships with academics,
students, and NGOs working in the field. The five presentations were included in a CD Rom containing a total of 200 papers presented
in the event. The CD Rom was compiled by the Congress' organizers, composed by an alliance of
Dutch universities and the Latin American department of Radio Netherlands.
José Esteban Castro was invited by the European Commission to make a presentation
at the Forum on Science and Technology for
organized jointly with the South African Government, which formed part of the World Summit on
Sustainable Development, held in Johannesburg on 2-3 September 2002. He talked about
“Partnerships for public utilities” during the Plenary Session on
Capacity Building and Partnerships. The event provided an excellent opportunity for
the dissemination of PRINWASS activities and for the development of new links with academics,
students, NGOs, and private water utilities participating in the Forum.
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PRINWASS has also established new partnerships with academic institutions,
NGOs, and private sector organizations, including:
Centro Latino Americano de Ecología Social (CLAES) (Uruguay), an independent NGO involved in research and promotion of social ecology, looking at the interchanging relationships between human activities, and environmental and historical circumstances, linking research with action in an ethical compromise with the defense of life. CLAES' long-term programme focuses on sustainable development, globalization and regional issues, with especial emphasis on alternative development schemes in the southern region of South America (Cono Sur). It involves people and organizations from six different countries (see Regional Citizenship for the South (in Spanish)). As a "think tank" and opinion maker, CLAES is often present in the media and edits information letters and e-bulletins. The NGO also carries out critical analyses of globalization from a Latin American point of view. It has its own publishing house, Coscoroba, with six printed titles so far.
Contact person Dr. José da Cruz
Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU), University of Greenwich, United Kingdom. PSIRU monitors privatisation in utilities and public services worldwide, with the results published in their web site, and specialises in water, energy and healthcare.
Contact person Mr. David Hall
GDR 2524 Groupement de Recherche du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), "Rés-EAU-Ville"- Eau, ville et territoire (France). 28 Rue Saint Guillaume, 75007 Paris.
Contact person Arq. Graciela Schneier Madanes.
Department of Geography, University of British Columbia (Canada). The Department of Geography at UBC is one of the largest departments in Canada, and offers courses in a wide range of geographical specializations at both the undergraduate and graduate levels (MA, MSc and PhD). Specializations extend from postcolonial perspectives to process-oriented scientific inquiry including GIS for spatial analysis and modelling. Research themes of relevance to the PRINWASS project include hydrology, geomorphology, environmental history of river basins, sustainable development of river basins, and globalization and third world cities. It has a permanent research and teaching staff of 27, divided fairly even between physical and human geography.
Contact person Dr. Karen Bakker.
Núcleo de Estudos em Regulação [Regulation Studies Group], at the Escola Brasileira de Administração Pública e de Empresas (EBAPE) of the Fundação Getulio Vargas.
The “regulation” research team at EBAPE concentrates on the study of the new regulatory environment emerging from ongoing processes of privatization, in particular of public services. Within this framework, a crucial issue is the need to establish adequate regulation in order to avoid the risk of converting state monopolies into private monopolies. This implies the enforcement of rules favoring free competition and user protection by guaranteeing an expanding supply and the universalisation of such services. Special attention is paid to the newly created state and municipal regulatory bodies, mainly in the water and sanitation sector. The team is engaged in the training of professionals and technicians involved in the running of public services, including users organizations. In addition to its academic activities, the team provides technical assistance and consultancy services.
Contact person Prof. Enrique Jeronimo Saravia
Fundación PRISMA (Salvadorean Programme for Research on Development and Environment). PRISMA is dedicated to democratic consolidation, poverty eradication, and reversion of environmental degradation. Its work focuses on consensus building among relevant social actors to favor the management of viable development processes prioritizing approaches that are environmentally sound and socially inclusive. The institution functions as a centre for research, reference, and action on development and environment in Central America. It is mainly oriented at providing support for social, sectoral, and territorial organizations, business and professional corporations, public institutions, and local governments.
Contact person Mr. Nelson Cuéllar.
Bariloche Foundation, Life Quality Programme (Argentina). The Life Quality Programme was created in 1994 on the basis of a previous project that run since 1989 and is focused on the production of theoretical and applied knowledge about the living standards of the population in the province of Río Negro and in the country at large. In particular, it considers the impact of globalization and the policies of structural reform since the 1970s on the regional conditions. Another important thematic area covered by the Programme concerns the theoretical and methodological analysis of social inequality and environmental sustainability. The Fundación has been a centre of excellence in Argentina for many years, and maintains close links with national, regional, and international institutions.
Contact person Dr. Carlos Alberto Abalerón.
Instituto Terciario de Ciencias Empresariales (Argentina). The Institute is part of the Federación Nacional de Trabajadores de Obras Sanitarias [National Workers Federation of Sanitary Works] (FENTOS). FENTOS is composed by a federation of unions from around the country, integrating professionals, managers, workers and technicians from the water and sanitation sector. The Institute is an approved educational establishment under the control of the government of Buenos Aires City offering careers in Bussiness Management and Administration and Environmental Management.
Contact person Dr. Oscar Moreno.
Allen & Overy, Construction and Projects Groups (UK). Among other issues, this law firm specialises in advising on major international infrastructure projects and has experience of a wide range of projects, acting for governments, project sponsors, lenders and contractors. Projects include water, sewage, power stations, industrial plant, telecoms, railway and other infrastructure projects in a wide range of countries including Belize, England, Indonesia, West Africa, Holland, South Africa, Estonia, Greece, Croatia, India and Malaysia.
Contact person Dr. Jeff Delmon.
The Development Studies Centre (CENDES) at the Central University of Venezuela is a well-established interdisciplinary institute dedicated to postgraduate research and teaching in the field of development social science. The activities at CENDES focus on nacional, regional and local problems from the perspective of processes of social change, looking particularly at technologies for social intervention, forecasting, public policy, social actors, and the viability of development strategies and projects. The institute offers degrees at the levels of doctorate, master, specialization, and further education in the areas of development and planning.
Contact person Dr. Miguel Lacabana.
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One of PRINWASS stated objectives is to contribute to the training and mobility of young European and Developing Country researchers. In addition to the training and mobility activities involving research students and trainees within our own partner institutions, we are also promoting links with other organizations. We have already placed one student from the Institut Supérieur des Techniques d’Outre Mer (ISTOM - France) with our Mexican partner (FLACSO - Mexico). Vincent Le Guen, who is in the third year of his four-year course at ISTOM has joined the research team at FLACSO and is collaborating with the tasks involved in carrying out the local case study. See below News from the FLACSO Mexico Team for more information.
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In addition to the tasks involved in the project's coordination, the Oxford team has been developing its own research and teaching tasks.
The team is co-ordinating two of the baseline documents (the key deliverables of the project's first phase): D1 "Economic arguments underlying current programmes of private participation in water and sanitation services in developing countries" and D3 "Socio-political and cultural factors affecting private participation projects in water and sanitation services". These deliverables will be made available by request and will be later published for dissemination.
José Esteban Castro is organizing a session on "The sociology and politics of water management" for the Water: Integrated Management – Meanings and Implications option in the MSc in Environmental Change and Management at the School of Geography and the Environment (SoGE), Oxford.
He is also coordinating a "Water option" for the MSc in Nature, Society and Environmental Policy, a new Master programme starting at SoGE in October 2002. The aim of this course is to explore the interrelations between nature and society looking at water issues, with special emphasis on the management of water resources and water services. It will offer a review of mainstream theoretical debates in geography, social science, and economics dealing with such issues as the intertwining between “natural” and “social” factors, the politics and economics of water management, and water and development. These theoretical approaches will be explored in relation to empirical evidence derived from recent and ongoing research.
Castro has just published a chapter based on his research on conflicts over water in Mexico in “Luta social pela água e direito à cidadania”, in José A. Bragança de Miranda and Joel Frederico da Silveira (cords.), As Ciências da Comunicaçao na Viragem do Século, (ISBN: 972-699-695-3) Lisbon: Vega Editores, pp. 300-312.
He attended the international conference Landscapes of Water: History, Innovation and Sustainable Design, held in Monopoli (Bari), Italy, on 26-29 September 2002. The conference, which was mainly a gathering of hydraulic engineers and landscape architects exploring possibilities for interdisciplinary research and practice presented an excellent opportunity to make new contacts and establish links for future collaboration. Among other contacts, an informal co-operation agreement was already established with the conference organizer, Prof. Attilio Petruccioli, from the Faculty of Architecture at the Politecnico di Bari. One the key topics of the potential co-operation focuses on the need to establish better links between engineering, architecture and social science in future interdisciplinary research efforts.
Finally, Castro has been invited to participate in the session "Governance and Citizen Participation in Water Management", at the Forum Water for the Americas in the XXI Century, organized by the Nacional Water Comission of Mexico (8-11 October, 2002). The meeting is entended to develop a Latin American contribution for the debates to be held in the forthcoming 3rd World Water Forum in Kyoto, Japan, 16-23 March 2003.
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The Tampere University of Technology team (CADWAS) led by Dr. Tapio Katko is coordinating one of the deliverables of the project's first phase, the document D2: "International and national policies that facilitate or hinder private participation in water and sanitation services in developing countries".
They are also making good progress with their local case study, which includes three examples: 1) Lahti Water Ltd. (water and sewerage), a large urban utility (in Finland 50 000 people is a large population!) that some years ago was transformed into a sharehold water company after being under municipal administration with very limited autonomy for many years. 2) The Kangasala municipal water and sewage utility, which serves a township with some 22 000 people. The centre, which grew very rapidly after World War Two, was served before by a number of smaller systems that were gradually integrated since the 1970s when a system of inter-municipal cooperation in water and sewage services was established between neighbouring municipalities. 3) The Lappavesi Water Ltd. and Lapua Wastewater Ltd. The first one is a wholesale water company with some private ownership (agroindustry) selling water to municipalities and small coperatives, while the latter is a mixed wastewater company. These two entities are managed in somewhat different ways in terms of cost sharing and decision-making. They also plan to explore two additional cases: a) a recent private operational contract for sewage treatment in one municipality and b) another experiment trying to establish multi-utility infrastructure companies.
Mr Osmo Seppala is currently making a short-term consultancy visit to Kosovo. He is providing technical assistance to the Kosovo-Finland Water and Sanitation Institution Building Programme, a bilateral development assistance project implemented by Kemwater Services Ltd, a Finnish operator and consulting company. Mr Seppala's main tasks in Kosovo are related to academic education activities at the University of Pristina, where a postgraduate course in environmental management has been arranged as part of the project activities.
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In addition to developing their local case study, the University of the Aegean team has just finished the edition of a Special Issue on "Shifting Perspectives on Urban Water Policy in Europe", which will appear in the March edition of European Planning Studies. The issue consists of case-studies of water policy in four European cities (Amsterdam, Athens, Barcelona and London). The shift towards the privatisation of urban water services figures high in the list of the analyses in all cases. All authors agree that far from being just a technical or financial issue, privatisation marks an institutional shift that has far-ranging (and still un-explored, other than in theory) implications in all facets of urban water management. Giorgos Kallis, from the Greek team, and Esteban Castro from the Oxford team have co-authored the papers on Athens and London, respectively.
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The Newcastle-UMSS team composed of Nina Laurie and Carlos Crespo organized a day workshop at the University of Newcastle on 26 June 2002 to present the findings of their research titled "A Review of the Changing Contexts for the Development of Pro-Poor Initiatives Through Water Concessions". The study, that was sponsored by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) consisted of a comparative study between the concessionary contracts on drinking water companies in La Paz-El Alto and Cochabamba.
Nina Laurie will be based at the University of Illinois for the next 12 months as the International Council Visiting Professor of Geography. Her position involves teaching a graduate course on community development in the Urban Planning Department, and liaising with the Center for Latin American Studies and with Women's Studies. Nina will be linking in with ongoing interdisciplinary work in Illinois University on water issues. She aims to make good use of the excellent library which has a depository collection on Bolivia.
The other main member of the Newcastle-UMSS team, Carlos Crespo, is currently based in Bolivia and both Nina and Carlos are looking forward to intercontinental travel that does not involve UK to Bolivia jet lag!.
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The Brazilian team is now fully dedicated to the field research for the case studies at the local and regional levels in the city of Limeira, State of São Paulo, and in several cities of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Limeira was one the first Brazilian cities to grant a concession to the private sector for running WSS in Brazil. The supplier is the French company Lyonnaise des Eaux. This case study is being developed by Roberval Lima, who is writing a masters dissertation on the topic under the direction of Dr. Marcelo Vargas.
The case studies of Rio de Janeiro State include Niterói, the former state capital with almost 600 thousand people. Here, WSS were given in concesion to a dynamic national group of private companies. The cases also include five cities of the Lake’s Region, which signed a single contract with a group controlled by the Empresa Portuguesa das Águas Livres, SA (EPAL), a Portuguese company, in a regional arrangement involving the state government. The Rio de Janeiro case studies are carried out in cooperation with the Observatory of Public Policies and Urban Management at the Institute of Urban and Regional Research and Planning (IPPUR/UFRJ) of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and the Federaçao de Orgaos para Asistencia Social (FASE), a dynamic NGO which is being active in social affairs, including WSS in the last 40 years. Our support team in Rio de Janeiro involves Ana Lúcia Britto, lecturer and researcher at the IPPUR, Ana Paula Medeiros, an architect who is carrying out a master’s degree on Urban Planning at the same institution, and Julianna Malerba, a historian working at FASE.
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The FDCMA team, working jointly with the Masters Programmes in Development at the Bolivian Catholic University (La Paz) is developing their share in the local case study. The team, lead by George Gray Molina, has incorporated two new researchers, Jorge Antonio Viana and Bernardo Rozo, and they are concentrating on some of the key processes that led to the "Water wars" of April 2000 in the city of Cochabamba. They are particularly looking at a) the organizational and institutional features of water management by irrigators associations in the metropolitan area, b) the particular definition of "water rights" by these associations, and c) the cultural meanings and identities ascribed to water management and uses in semir-rural areas.
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The National University of Buenos Aires team is actively developing their contribution to the local case studies, which focus on the situation in Buenos Aires city and in the provincial capital Tucumán. The group has also incorporated a number of advanced students, who are receiving training and the opportunity to develop a research career. Earlier this year, the team counted with the contribution of Lic. Miriam Pelazas, who has now moved to Mexico to start a doctorate in History at El Colegio de Mexico. Julio Ithurburu, Clarisa Bottor and Verónica Pérez, advanced students of the Career of Sociology and members of the Research Programme on Social Change (P.I.Ca.So.) coordinated by Prof. Juan Carlos Marín at the Research Institute Gino Germani are taking part in the tasks of gathering information on one of the key issues being researched by the team: the problem of citizen defenselessness vis a vis the processes of private capital involvement in water and sanitation services.
Emilio Crenzel participated in the CEISAL congress (see "Dissemination" earlier). He also presented a paper on “The social character of the provision of water and sanitation in late twentieth-century Buenos Aires” at the IV Colloquium on Territorial Transformations organized by the Academic Committee for regional development of the Association of Universities Montevideo Group and the Network for Ordering and Management of Sustainable Territorial Development of the University of the Republic, Montevideo, Uruguay (e-mail address of the congress.), July 2002.
The Research Institute Gino Germani, with the participation of Prof. Marín, is launching the electronic journal “Argumentos”, which will be oriented at publishing analyses of the situation in Argentina. The creation of the journal is also a response to an increasing demand from international organizations in search for information about the Argentinean crisis, including universities, research centres, NGOs, civil society organizations, government departments, unions, political parties, and journalists. Publishing Committee, Revista Argumentos.
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The FLACSO Argentina team has been directly participating in and monitoring the process of contract renegotiation between the national government and the company Aguas Argentinas S. A. The importance of this process exceeds the regulatory problems affecting the concession of the water and sanitation services in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan area, as the very continuity of the concession is being discussed. This possibility is supported by a number of user associations and increasingly by the Defensoría del Pueblo de la Nación [Watchdog of the Nation’s People]. Within this framework, the team has established fluid relationships with members of the official commission for the renegotiation, with user and consumer organizations, with the Defensoría del Pueblo de la Nación, with the regulatory body ETOSS, and with the Ente Unico de Regulación de los Servicios Públicos de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Unified Regulatory Body for Public Services in Buenos Aires City). This experience has been enriched by the ongoing collaboration between Lic. Daniel Azpiazu and Dr. Miguel Solanes, expert in regulatory matters at the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC).
Although the renegotiation has been mainly focused on tariff problems, there is a high probability that the debate will be extended to other areas of the concession, in particular to the problems arising from the original contract negotiation and the successive -and controversial- renegotiations that took place afterwards.
The team has also been developing teaching activities focused on the problems arising from privatization and regulation of infrastructure sectors. These activities take place mainly in the National University of San Martìn, the National University of General Sarmiento, and also in FLACSO Argentina.
Lic. Aspiazu has been invited to coordinate the session "Economic and Social Context of Water Governance" in the Forum Water for the Americas in the XXI Century, organized by the Nacional Water Comission of Mexico (8-11 October, 2002). The meeting is entended to develop a Latin American contribution for the debates to be held in the forthcoming 3rd World Water Forum in Kyoto, Japan, 16-23 March 2003.
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The National University of Misiones team has incorporated three researchers: Lic. Marta Liliana Ceballos Acasuso, Researcher from the National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), Arq. Lorena Cecira Sanchez, CONICET Fellow, and Arq. Eduardo Augusto Butticé. The team is developing a local web site on Water and Society in Spanish, intended as a tool for dissemination and networking. They are also carrying out preliminary work on water services in the fourth Northeastern provinces of Formosa, Chaco, Misiones and Corrientes. They just presented a joint paper (in Spanish) on "Public or private? The services of water supply and sanitation in the Argentinean Northeast", at the XXII Meeting of Regional Geo-History of the Institute for Geo-Historical Research, National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), 5 October 2002, Resistencia, Chaco, Argentina.
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The FLACSO Mexico Team is actively involved in carrying out the local case studies. The team, originally composed by Dr María Luisa Torregrosa and Dr Fernando Saavedra Peláez, has been reinforced with the inclusion of Ms. Alice Quiñones Castillo (M.Phil), Ms. Esther Padilla (BA), and Mr Gabriel Cosío, a student carrying out his BA dissertation as part of the project work.
The team participated in the 6th Annual Meeting of the National Association of Water and Sanitation Companies (ANEAS), celebrated in the city of Colima on 15-17 August. Among the key topics discussed in the meeting is worth highlighting the unstable financial situation facing most companies in the sector and the sanctions been applied to the users in case of non payment.
They have just completed the first phase of the field work in the city of Aguacalientes, and have also carried out exploratory work in San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas. This second case has particular relevance given the incipient private sector involvement in the provision of water and sanitation being currently promoted by the World Bank in the area.
Ms Quiñones has recently completed succesfully her master dissertation under the supervision of Dr Maria Luisa Torregrossa. Her research topic was “The role of the water tariff as a mediating factor in the interaction between population and environment: the case of Milpa Alta in Mexico City". She is now working on "A comparative study of the water situation in the sixteen delegaciones [administrative units] of Mexico City”.
Dr María Luisa Torregrossa is preparing the final version of her book on "Rural Modernization and Crisis of the Traditional Social Identities in Mexico: a Study of the Mexican Irrigation Districts". She also submitted a paper to the Ceisal congress (see "Dissemination" earlier, although she could not attend the event in person.
The Mexican team will also participate in the Forum Water for the Americas in the XXI Century, organized by the Nacional Water Comission of Mexico (8-11 October, 2002), which will be a meeting point for governments, internacional organizations, experts, private companies, and NGOs to discuss future strategies for action in the water management sector. The meeting is entended to develop a Latin American contribution for the debates to be held in the forthcoming 3rd World Water Forum in Kyoto, Japan, 16-23 March 2003.
Finally, FLACSO Mexico is providing institutional support for Vincent Le Guen, a French student (see “Training and Mobility of Young Researchers” earlier) currently spending a five-month period participating in the research tasks of the local PRINWASS programme. Vincent says: “This five month stay in Mexico City allows me to be part of the PRINWASS project with the team working on the water situation in Mexico at FLACSO. This internship, which is part of my studies at ISTOM, turned out to be a really interesting first approach to the ongoing water problems encountered in the world, and more particularly in Mexico. I am delighted to be part of such a thrilling project, which helps me to better understand the main topics involved in the processes of water privatization, which is increasingly important given that an alarmingly large share of the world’s population still has no access to this vital resource”.
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The UNGS team is completing a local research project on “Practices of urban management in a context of increasing commodification of the city’s reproduction. The social tariff: the meaning of universality in the privatised water and sanitation services in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Region (1991-2001)”.
They are organizing a “Workshop on the Social Tariff” with the objective of disseminating their research results. The event is also aimed at providing a space for debate and reflection on the challenges facing the access to the privatised services by low-income groups. In particular, the event will be centred around the key question arising during the “posprivatization” period in Buenos Aires: the lack of incentives for the private companies to extend the service to low-income sectors and the contradictions between the economic and political rationalities involved in the process.
The workshop will gather professionals, academics, students, and representatives of the public and private sectors, and will take place on 28 November.
The team organizing the workshop is composed by Andrea C. Catenazzi, Gustavo Kohan, Natalia Da Representaçao, Mercedes Di Virgilio, Cristina Cravino and Silvia Sánchez. For information about the event, contact:
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José Luis García, co-ordinator of the University of Lisbon team, organized jointly with Prof. Herminio Martins a Colloquium on City and Technology in the XXI Century, at the Instituto de Ciências Sociais da Universidade de Lisboa (ICS-UL), 20-21 September 2002. The main topics of the event covered “Urbanism, production and sustainability”, “Spaces, politics, and modes of living”, and “Technopolis and cosmopolitism”. He is also preparing a collection based on a previous event on “Science, Nature, and Tecnoethics”, celebrated in September 2001 in Lisbon, which features several papers on environmental conflict and governance.
Susana Nascimento, who is the main collaborator of García in the PRINWASS project, is a postgraduate student currently finishing her Master course in Communication, Culture, and Technology at the Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa (I.S.C.T.E.), in Lisbon.
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III IBERIAN CONGRESS ON WATER MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING:
the Water Framework Directive: Realities and Futures", Seville, Spain, 13-17
November 2002. The Congress will focus on the potential impact of the recently passed
European Water Framework Directive, which will prompt changes from traditional hydraulic
policy, based on resource generation through major subsidized hydraulic works, to a new
approach characterized by efficient management, the economic responsibility of users,
and the preservation or recovery of the ecosystemic quality of rivers, aquifers, wetlands,
deltas, estuaries and coastal waters. The Congress will focus mainly on the situation of Iberian and Latin American
countries. There will be about 190 contributions from more than 60 Iberian and Latin-American
universities and research centers, including special sessions for Latin-America and Andalusia (the latter as host
Community of the III Congress).
"Renegociación de los Contratos de los Servicios Públicos Privatizados y Tarifa Social in Buenos Aires", organized by
the National University of General Sarmiento Team in Buenos Aires, 21 November 2002.
International Conference "Efficient 2003 -
Efficient Use and Management of Water for Urban Supply", Tenerife, Canary Islands,
Spain, 2-4 April 2003.
The conference covers aspects of urban water management with an emphasis on
conservation and demand management. There are special sessions on "Economics
and Regulation" (looking for the effects of different types of regulatory
frameworks on water use efficiency) and on the "Developing World"
(addressing "the special conditions of low income and developing areas").
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Last updated: June 2017